The Labour MP, who is the youngest in the house, will work part-time as an MP handling casework from constituents, and part time for ExtraCare, based in Nottingham.
She says she will donate the salary she receives from care work to a local Covid-19 support fund.
Already she donates the majority of her MPs salary to local charities.
Ms Whittome, who replaced Chris Leslie in the Nottingham East seat in December, plans to continue to hold constituency surgeries over the phone during the outbreak.
She said: “I am returning part-time to my previous job as a care worker because social care is already in crisis and the care system is in serious danger of falling apart at the seams during the Covid-19 pandemic.
“Care workers work tirelessly to support communities, yet rarely receive recognition and pay that reflects their contribution.
“The same workers Priti Patel labels as ‘not skilled’ are keeping the country afloat.
“As well as providing a public service, I hope that my returning to care work will give more profile and recognition to the workers responsible for the dignity, well-being, and health of so many.
“Returning to my frontline job is an act of solidarity with my colleagues who are struggling under increased pressure and with elderly people who are more at risk if they contract Covid-19.”